New Haven Public School DistrictGrade 9 Core Activities Air Quality Index(AQI) - Calculationand Communication Concentration Air PollutionAround the World Alternative Fuels Steps You Can Take

 Alternative Fuels Student Worksheet What alternative energy sources are available?

Procedure

Part 1
1. The table below contains pollution information for Connecticut in 2002:

 Connecticut - Pollutant Emission Source Percentages * Pollutant Power Plants Fuel Burning Factories Road Vehicles Off-road Vehicles Miscellaneous Total Emissions (Tons per Year) Carbon Monoxide (CO) 0% 2% 3% 67% 27% 0% 1,022,177 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 4% 12% 4% 61% 19% 0% 128,223 Particulate Matter <10um (PM10) 1% 8% 12% 4% 4% 71% 54,478 Particulate Matter <2.5um (PM2.5) 3% 20% 26% 8% 11% 32% 19,522 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) 35% 47% 3% 7% 8% 0% 31,224 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) or Hydrocarbons 0% 5% 42% 31% 21% 0% 137,214
*National Emission Inventory (NEI) - Emission Factor and Inventory Group, OAQPS - EPA 2002

1a) What is the primary source of Carbon Monoxide (CO)?
1b) What is the primary source of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)?

The Clean School Bus Program is an important part of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection’s (CTDEP) efforts to reduce diesel emissions from school buses. By using a combination of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel and retrofitting the school buses with two types of emission control equipment - filters and catalysts. The emission of fine particulates and carbon monoxide are expected to be reduced by approximately 40 percent and hydrocarbons (VOCs) by 45 percent, as well as a small decrease in nitrogen oxides.

The Clean Bus Program is an example of one of many steps that need to occur to reduce the amount of pollution we collectively emit every day from our vehicles. For example, if Americans:

 Raise fuel efficiency standards in American cars by one mile per gallon, in one year, we would save twice the amount of oil that could be obtained from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Raising standards by 2.7 mpg would save enough to eliminate all the oil imports from Iraq and Kuwait combined. Raising standards by 7.6 mpg would save enough to eliminate 100% of our Persian (Arabian) Gulf region oil imports into this country.

2. Select four students from the class who are aware of the following information about their family car; model year, make, model, and miles per year.

3. Use the fueleconomy.gov web site to obtain the emissions levels of the cars.

 Which car had the highest fuel consumption? (list mpg) Which car had the lowest fuel consumption? (list mpg) Which car had the worst rating for Greenhouse gas emissions? (list rating) Which car had the best rating for Greenhouse gas emissions? (list rating) How did the cars compare to the hybrid car (Prius) used in the example?

Part 2

There are several alternative fuels and other technologies available for large trucks and buses today that will decrease our dependency on oil and decrease the amount of pollutant emissions.

4. In groups of 2 - 3 students, select one of the alternative fuels listed below: