MEMORIES OF THE SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE
Shortly after five in the morning, on April 18, 1906 DeWitt C. Baldwin woke up to practice the piano. It was about 5:15 A.M., and he had got as far as sitting up with his feet over the bed when unexpectedly the house began shaking violently. He heard dishes break from different parts of the house and the furniture moved at the violence of the shock.
He quickly ran down the hall to see the effects of the earthquake, for he was only eight years old. He was excited so he stayed at the window. Outside DeWitt noticed people running up and down the street while others like him were curiously looking out their windows. They all went to get dressed. Afterwards, while they were eating breakfast around 7:45 A.M., the second strong earthquake hit. Shortly after the second earthquake hit, he heard sirens wailing all over the city. This indicated that local fires had started. After the tremors stopped, he rushed outdoors. As he was running to see the nearest fire, he came across a small three story hotel that evidently had been built over a subterranean fault line. The first story had partly sank in the earth while the second and third had fallen out into the street.
DeWitt then came across a huge crowd watching a huge department store ablaze. He was observing how the firemen were desperately trying to control it. After surveilling some time and listening to tales from different folks who were there to see the fire, he turned to go back home and on the way he collected information about other fires from distant places in the city. Many people returned home, got their valuable possessions and clothes and headed for the mountains. As the day continued he saw many things that were amusing and entertaining. He saw gaps on the ground that were as wide as 5 feet and as deep as 25 feet. On the third day, many fires were still in progress, and many structures in our neighborhood were destroyed and leveled to the ground.
Later that day they were ordered to leave their homes and find shelter in the hills, because the flames would soon reach their home. In the middle of the fourth day someone informed them that they were going to dynamite the houses so it would be difficult for the flames to spread across the street. The fire was controlled on 20th St. so anyone who lived beyond that point could return home if they wanted to.
A few weeks later when the reconstruction began, he moved to a summer cottaage in Larkspur, so he hardly had any time with his parents because they were so busy. He was not in the city during the reconstruction period. Jessica
When someone calls "earthquake," everyone must pretend that an earthquake is happening and "duck, cover, and hold." After 15 seconds, you come out and take five slow breaths to practice calming down. Then discuss how everyone responded and what could be done better.
Pay close attention to what you feel during a real earthquake, and you can estimate its magnitude and location. First, you need to know: 1) earthquakes produce two types of waves, P and S. The S-wave arrives later but is bigger, 2) rapid shaking dies off quickly with distance so nearby earthquakes are "jolting" and far away earthquakes are "rolling," and 3) the time duration of the earthquake increases with the magnitude.
During an earthquake, try to recognize the two waves. The distance to the earthquake is the time between them times 5 miles per second. Count how long the ground moves strongly in the S wave (don't wait for every jitter to die away). Use the table on page 23 to estimate the magnitude from the duration of the earthquake shaking. You will then have an idea of the magnitude and distance to the earthquake before you get out from under the table.
NOTE ABOUT CHILDREN
If earthquakes scare us because we feel out of control, think how much more true this must be for children, who already must depend on adults for so much in their lives. It is important to spend time with children in your care before the next earthquake to explain why earthquakes occur, involve them in hazard hunts (page 11), prepare earthquake bags, and practice "duck, cover, and hold." Play the Earthquake Game. Consider simulating post-earthquake conditions by going without electricity or tap water.
After the earthquake, remember that children will be under great stress. They may be frightened, their routine will be disrupted, and the aftershocks won't let them forget. Expect their behavior to regress. Adults tend to leave children to deal with the many demands of the emergency, but this can be devastating to children. Extra contact and support from parents in the early days will pay off later. Whenever possible, include children in the recovery process.
"Big earthquakes always happen in the early morning."
"It's hot and dry--earthquake weather!"
"We have good building codes so we must have good buildings."
"Head for the doorway"
We need a safety plan to save as many lives as possible. When an earthquake occurs it causes a lot of destruction. For example, a survivor of April 18, 1906 stated, "All I saw were fire fighters, police officers and many more helpers to the rescue. "Earthquakes can cause a fire all over a town or city. The earthquake of 1906 proved this. DeWitt C. Baldwin stated, "There were 53 different fires all over the city." Today you can still see earthquakes start fires, and even make buildings collapse. With a safety plan we are able to get out of burning and falling buildings alive. For example, in 1906 a three story hotel sank into the ground. Plans were needed to escape this disaster. There can be a tiny shake or a tremendous shake. That is why we need a plan.
In a time of a disaster, we need to make sure that we're safe and everyone around us is safe. So, join me in helping all of you. Start rally's and help our community be safe for you and me. Andrea
WHAT IS YOUR SAFETY PLAN?
Many people already have a safety plan, but do you? Well, if you don't you should use this safety precaution: Use a large container such as a footlocker or 30-gallon trash can, and label each food and water item with the date of purchase or the last date it should be used. Place the container in a cool, dark place, such as a garage, on something to raise it off the ground.
Extra clothing, shoes
Items for personal hygiene: toilet tissue and heavy-duty plastic bags for disposal
Instant food: cookies, crackers, etc. (shelf life: 3 months)
Water (shelf life: 6 months)
Water purification tablet
Manuel can opener
Food and water for pets (shelf life: 6 months)
Dry food such as pasta and rice (shelf life: 1 year)
Canned food (shelf life: 1 year)
Batteries, with tester (shelf life: 6 months)
First aid kit (shelf life: 6 months)
Adhesive bandages, gauze and tape
Plate Tectonics is the theory of the plates upon which the continents sit. These plates move, rub and push against each other. The movement of the plates occur along the edges of the plates where the most force is at work. There are four types of plate boundaries, which are:
Divergent Boundaries: Where new crusts are formed when the plates move away from each other.
Convergent Boundaries: Where the crust is destroyed as one plate goes under the other.
Transform Boundaries: Where the crust isn't destroyed or formed as the plates move horizontally against each other.
Plate Boundaries Zone: Vast belts in which the boundaries are not very well formed, therefore the effects of the plate interactions are unclear.
Divergent Boundaries are formed when two plates move away from each other and the space left between them is now taken up by a new crust formed by magma pushing up from the mantle.
Plate Boundary Zone: One of these zones marks the Mediterranean area between the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate.